Bariatric Surgery and NASH
Chih-Yen Chen, MD, PhD, AGAF, FSCWD
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is an effective treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the mechanism is not completely understood. Bile acids and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. We investigated the roles of total bile acid and FGF 19 in T2DM remission and NAFLD improvement in obese subjects undergoing SG. A total of 18 patients with obesity and T2DM undergoing laparoscopic SG were enrolled in this study. Serial plasma total bile acid and FGF 19 levels were measured, while the fatty liver index was calculated before and after surgery. The FGF 19 level significantly increased, and the total bile acid level and fatty liver index decreased 1 year after surgery. The complete T2DM remission rate was 66.7% one year after surgery; the complete remitters had significantly lower FGF 19 levels and higher insulin levels than the non-complete remitters. The complete remitters also had significantly decreased total bile acid levels and increased FGF 19 levels 1 year after surgery compared with those before surgery. The fatty liver improvers had significantly decreased total bile acid levels and increased FGF 19 levels 1 year after surgery compared with those before surgery. The total bile acids level and fatty liver index decreased, and the FGF 19 levels increased 1 year after SG. Both T2DM complete remitters and NAFLD improvers showed significantly decreased total bile acid levels and increased FGF 19 levels 1 year after SG. Plasma total bile acids and FGF 19 play pivotal roles in T2DM remission and NAFLD improvement. Low preoperative FGF 19 levels are a predictor for NAFLD improvement after SG.